Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize is awarded to scientists with outstanding achievements in the field of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for peace Economics added in 1969 . The set of annual international awards are bestowed by Swedish and Norwegian committees. Awarded in honor of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, the awards are the top most honors in the field of science.
History of Nobel Prize
- Alfred B. Nobel was a Swedish engineer turned industrialist who invented dynamite.
- He held more than 350 patents including inventions of synthetic rubber, artificial silk, and synthetic leather
- Although an engineer, his interests varied from science to English literature.
- At the time of his death he left a $9 million in his will to establish the Nobel Prizes.
- The will of Alfred Nobel, says his wealth should be “annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who have worked only in the fields of physiology (or medicine), literature, physics, and chemistry and shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind. [ Basically its PCM +Literature ]
- It also establishes the Peace Prize, for the “person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.”
FactByte of Nobel Prize 🏆
- The prizes are established by the will of Swedish inventor and industrialist Alfred Nobel.
- The Nobel Prize is a set of six annual international awards by Swedish and Norwegian institutions
- Economics (Added by Bank of Sweden, First prize in this category was given in 1969)
- Started in 1901, Maximum 3 persons can be awarded in each category annually
- A person must be alive to be nominated.
- Actual medals are given on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death.
- Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway while Other prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden
- Marie Curie, First person and only woman to win twice & only person to win twice in multiple Science
- In physics 1903 – For radiation phenomena
- In Chemistry 1911 – For discovery of Radium & Polonium
- WFP is the 28th Org to get Nobel Prize since 1901.
Prize for Economic Sciences: How is it different?
- While the Nobel Prize has been awarded since 1901, the first Economics prize was awarded only in 1969 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
- The name of the prize is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
- The name ‘Sveriges Riksbank Prize’ comes from the fact that the central bank of Sweden made a donation to the Nobel Foundation in 1968.
- Thus while the five Nobel Prizes are based on a fund set up from the wealth bequeathed by Alfred Nobel, the Economic Prize is based on a donation received by the Nobel Foundation.
- The nominations are made by Nobel laureates, members of the prize awarding institutions, active scholars in different fields, and officials and members of diverse universities and learned academies. The nominations are to be supported through a written proposal about the candidate’s worthiness.
- There is no provision for Self-nomination.
Notable laureates who wins Nobel prize more than once
|International Committee of the Red Cross||A humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland |
Three-time Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
|United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHRC)||Two-time Nobel Peace Prize Laureate|
|Marie Curie||First woman to win a Nobel Prize in Physics in the year 1903 and in Chemistry in 1911 |
First person and only woman to win twice
The only person to win twice in multiple sciences
|John Bardeen||An American physicist; |
Two-time Nobel Prize Laureate
|Linus Pauling||An American Chemist; |
Two-time Nobel Prize Laureate
|Frederick Sanger||A British Biochemist; |
Two-time Nobel Prize Laureate
India’s Nobel Laureates
|Rabindranath Tagore||1913||Literature||First Nobel laureates from India |
Geetanjali – a collection of his poems
|C V Raman||1930||Physics||Raman Effect|
|Dr. Hargobind Khorana||1968||Medicine||Human Genetic Code and its role in Protein Synthesis|
|Mother Teresa||1979||Peace||For Charitable Mission “Nirmal Hriday” at Calcutta for people suffering from Leprosy and to those people dying in destitute|
|Dr. Subramanian Chandrashekar||1983||Physics||For the theory of White dwarf stars’ limitation known as ‘Chandrasekhar Limit’|
|Dr. Amartya Sen||1998||Economics||For his work in Economic Theory related to Poverty, Democracy, Development and Social Welfare|
|Dr. Venkataraman Ramakrishnan||2009||Chemistry||For mapping ribosomes, the protein producing factories within cells at the atomic level |
Shared with Thomas Steitz of America Ada Yonath of Israel
|Kailash Satyarthi||2014||Peace||For their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education. |
Shared with Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan
Nobel Prize 🏆 winner 2020
|Field||Since||Awarded by||Winner||Topic for which award given|
|1901||Karolinska Institute in Stockholm||Harvey J Alter|
Charles M Rice
|Discovery of the Hepatitis C Virus (Read more)|
|Physics||1901||Swedish Academy of Sciences||Roger Penrose|
|Discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy (Details will be updated soon)|
|Chemistry||1901||Swedish Academy of Sciences||Emmanuelle Charpentier|
Jennifer A. Doudna
|For CRISPR-Cas9 Technology (Read More)|
|Literature||1901||Swedish Academy in Stockholm||Louise Gluck||For her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal’|
|Peace||1901||a committee selected by the Norwegian Storting (Parliament)||World Food Program (WFP)||For its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict.|
|Economics||1969||Noble Foundation||Paul R. Milgrom|
Robert B. Wilson
|For improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats|
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