Prelims cum Mains Social Issues

Clean cities: Indore on top for 4th time in row


  • Swachh Survekshan 2020 report has been released by the Union Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry.

About: Swachh Survekshan

  • On October 2, 2014, the Indian Prime Minister repackaged the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, an existing sanitation programme launched in 2012, into Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM).
  • The aim of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was to eradicate open defecation and provide 100 per cent access to toilets by 2019.
  • To achieve this stiff goal in a short span of five years, the SBM was introduced as two sub-missions – Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
  • In an effort to encourage cities to improve the level of cleanliness, sanitation and hygiene and at the same time generate large scale citizen participation in Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), in 2016, the Ministry of Urban Development commissioned an extensive survey called Swachh Survekshan.

In Focus: Swachh Survekshan 2020

Scope of the Survey 2020:

  • This was the fifth edition of the Swachh Survekshan Survey.
  • It has now become the world’s largest sanitation survey, with 1.8 crore citizens giving their feedback.
  • The Survekshan covered 4,242 cities, 62 cantonment boards and 97 “Ganga towns” in 2020.
  • Survey teams visited 58,000 residential and 20,000 commercial areas in 28 days, while 1.87 crore citizens’ feedbacks were received.
  • Methodology of the Survey:
  • The assessment is done on 2 major grounds-
    • Swachh Survekshan League which carries 200 marks
    • Apart from Swachh Survekshan League, overall survey carries 6000 marks for multiple parameters.
  • Swachh Survekshan League:
    • Government introduced Swachh Survekshan League (SSL) which is a quarterly cleanliness assessment of cities and towns conducted across three quarters, with 25 per cent weightage integrated into the final Swachh Survekshan results for the year.
    • The initial assessment will be conducted in three quarters – April to June, July to September and October to December.
    • Each quarter carries equal weightage in assessment.
    • Average score of SSL will be calculated out of 200 marks in overall assessment.
  • Parameters:
    • Citizen feedback (1500 marks)- Citizens could share their feedback through the 1969 Swachhata Helpline (1969), the Swachhata App, Swachh Survekshan 2020 portal, outbound calls and the Vote for Your City App.
    • Direct observation (1500 marks)- This was done by an independent agency visiting the city and making crucial observations on the ground. 
    • Certification for garbage and open defecation free (1000 marks)
    • ODF plus and ODF plus plus cities (500 marks)
      • The government defines ODF plus as cleanliness and sustainability of the community and public toilets.
      • ODF plus plus focusses on cleanliness and sustainability of the community and public toilets along with safe containment, processing and disposal of fecal sludge and septage.
    • Service level progress (1300 marks)- This includes:
      • Collection and transportation of municipal solid waste
      • Processing and disposal of municipal solid waste
      • Sustainable sanitation
      • IEC (Information, Education and Communication)
      • Capacity building
      • Innovation and best practices
      • By-laws
    • Benefits of the Survey
      • When the mission was launched in 2014, waste processing was 18% and now it has increased to 66%.

Swachh Survekshan 2020 Findings

  • Ranking of cities with over 1 lakh population
    • Indore – Indore has been ranked 1st for 4th time in a row.
  • Cleanest State in category of those with over 100 ULBs or cities
    • Chhattisgarh
  • Cleanest States in category of those with less than 100 ULBs or cities
    • Jharkhand
    • Maharashtra
    • Madhya Pradesh
    • Jharkhand
    • Gujarat
  • Cleanest Towns in category of “Ganga towns”
    • Varanasi
    • Kanpur
    • Munger
    • Prayagraj
    • Haridwar
  • Cleanest Cantonment Boards
    • Jalandhar
    • Delhi
  • Cleanest Capital City
    • New Delhi

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