Prelims cum Mains

Prelims 2020 Addon#03

World Population Prospect 2019

Key findings of the report: 

  • Global population: The global population is projected to increase by another 2 billion people by 2050, from 7.7 billion in 2019 to 9.7 billion thirty years down the line. By the end of the century, the world population is set to peak at a level of about 11 billion.
  • India: In 2019, India has an estimated population of 1.37 billion and China 1.43 billion and by 2027, India’s population is projected to surpass China’s. India is also expected to add 273 million people by 2050 and will remain the most populated until the end of the century.
  • Top 5 populous countries (Projections):
    • Following the India-China re-ordering in 2027, the ranking of the five largest countries is projected to remain the same until the end of the century.
    • India is expected to remain the world’s most populous country with nearly 1.5 billion inhabitants, followed by China at 1.1 billion, Nigeria with 733 million, the United States with 434 million, and Pakistan with 403 million.

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  • Declining population: By 2050, 55 countries are estimated to see their populations shrink by at least 1%. This is due to sustained low levels of fertility and high rates of emigration. In China the population is projected to shrink by as much as 2.2 % or 31.4 million by 2050.
  • Ageing: Overall the world’s population is ageing, with the age group of 65 and above growing at such a fast rate that by 2050, one in six people in the world will be part of it as compared to one in 11 in 2019.
Important Info :

‘The World Population Prospects 2019’ is published by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

BONN CHALLENGE

Ahead of the COP-14, Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar launched a flagship project, part of a larger international initiative called the Bonn Challenge, to enhance India’s capacity for forest landscape restoration (FLR).
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About:

  • The Bonn Challenge is a global effort to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land under restoration by 2020, and 350 million hectares by 2030.
  • The flagship project will be implemented during a pilot phase of three-and-a-half years in the five pilot states of Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland and Karnataka. This will eventually be scaled up across the country.
  • The project will aim to develop and adapt the best practices and monitoring protocols for the country, and build capacity within the five pilot States.
  • Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar also announced that India for the first time will host the 14th session of the Conference of Parties (COP-14) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in September.
Important Info :

Desertification in India:

  • India faces a severe problem of land degradation, or soil becoming unfit for cultivation.
  • A 2016 report by the Indian Space Research Organisation found that about 29% of India’s land (in 2011-13) was degraded, this being a 0.57% increase from 2003-05.
  • At the previous edition of the COP, India had committed to restore 13 million hectares of degraded and deforested land by the year 2020, and an additional 8 million hectares by 2030.


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