Enviornment Prelims cum Mains

Ahead of climate talks, India in touch with 40 countries

The News

  • Climate talks are going to be held in December in Katowice, Poland and before that India is having discussions with 40 countries to forge alliance with like-minded countries.

 

Background

  • Over the years, developed countries have promised to provide $100 billion annually to developing countries to check such warming.
  • The COP, in 2015, made a historic decision in Paris to take steps to ensure that the earth didn’t warm 2C over the pre-industrial era.
  • The agreement is set to come into force from 2020.
  • However, the United States has since pulled out from the accord.
  • Whereas recently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a report that compiled scientific evidence to show that the planet as of today was on course to reaching the 1.5C mark by 2030-2052 and to halt it would require global, carbon dioxide emissions to be half of 2017 levels by 2030.
  • Over the years, India has been part of various alliances like BASIC and like-minded developing countries in order to compel developed nations to fulfill their historical responsibility for climate change.
  • Now, ahead of the climate talks India is again interacting with such alliances for negotiating with developed countries on climate change issue.

 

Highlights of the news

  • The Katowice Climate Change Conference in Poland is going to be held in December 2018 which will include the 24th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 24) to the UNFCCC.
  • Before that conference, India is having discussions with 40 countries, including China, to forge alliances and compel developed countries to make good on promises, made over the years, to provide enough finance and technology to stem runaway global warming.
  • Mainly, it is about firming up about how the Paris agreement is to be implemented, as well as outstanding commitments on providing finance and technology.
  • There are constant fora where India is interacting, video calls, meetings, etc.
  • However, India considers and accepts that not all COPs would result in big bang announcements.
  • Some are about compelling countries to make good on outstanding commitments.
  • It is expecting the same in the upcoming 24th CoP.

 

Way forward

  • To tackle climate change, we need to do our utmost to spread technology and make technology available at the cheapest price, extend private sector cooperation, have more companies from different parts of the world work together.
  • Take the electrical vehicle industry.
  • The like-minded countries through discussions and negotiations should compel the developed countries to take their responsibility and fulfill the commitment.
  • The leader countries like U.S. must commit the necessary resources and policy reforms to restore the leadership in tackling big problems like climate change.

 

Like minded countries on climate change

  • The Like Minded-Group of Developing Countries (LMDC) is a group of developing countries who organise themselves as block negotiators in international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization, they represent more than 50% of the world’s population.
  • The LMDC member countries who negotiate in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for are Algeria, Bangladesh, Bolivia, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mali, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela and Vietnam.
  • The ‘Like Minded Developing Countries’ (India, China, Venezuela and Iran) and BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India, China) are networks that are formed to lend weight to developing country concerns.
  • India, China, Venezuela, Iran and others under the umbrella of Like Minded Developing Countries (LMDC) are calling for greater attention on efforts to tackle climate change.
  • They are focusing on increasing climate action in the pre-2020 period.
  • Finance, technology and capacity building support provided by developed countries to poor developing countries is understood to be central to increasing the level of efforts made to tackle climate change by the like-minded countries and they push for the same.
  • These developing countries are urging developed countries that are yet to pledge an emission reduction target to do so, and for those who have set targets to undertake measures that would result in an upward revision of their targets.
  • The LMDC is also calling on developing countries that made a pre-2020 climate pledge to consider increasing their efforts to reduce the carbon intensity of their economies.
  • The LMDCs expresses concern regarding shifting the financial burden to developing countries and the attempt to expand the list of countries with obligations under the Convention (UNFCCC) to provide climate finance and at the same time shrink the list of countries eligible for receiving climate finance.
  • They also called on the developed countries “to provide a clear roadmap for the fulfillment of the $100 billion per year by 2020”.

 

About BASIC

  • The BASIC countries (also Basic countries or BASIC) are a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries– Brazil, South Africa, India and China – formed by an agreement on 28 November 2009.
  • The four committed to act jointly at the Copenhagen climate summit, including a possible united walk-out if their common minimum position was not met by the developed nations.
  • This emerging geopolitical alliance, initiated and led by China, then brokered the final Copenhagen Accord with the United States.
  • Subsequently, the grouping is working to define a common position on emission reductions and climate aid money, and to try to convince other countries to sign up to the Copenhagen Accord.
  • This group also demanded that developed countries allow developing countries “equitable space for development” as well as providing them with finance, technology and capacity-building support, based on their “historical responsibility for climate change”.

 

About CoP

  • The Conference of Parties (COP) is a group of 200 countries which meet annually on addressing global warming.
  • The recent one being held in Poland is the 24th in the series.
  • They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties (Conference of the Parties, COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

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