Polity & Governance Prelims cum Mains

Curbing open urination is next step

The News

  • For the first time, elimination of open urination has been declared as an agenda under Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).


Key Highlights

  • Recently, two Open Defecation Free protocols (ODF+ and ODF++) were issued by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
  • Accordingly, in order to be declared ODF+, a city or town should be free of open urination, in addition to open defecation.
  • However, elimination of open urination is not in the agenda of the rural division of Swachh Bharat Mission.


ODF Protocols

  • The ODF protocol was first issued in March 2016 to notify a city/ward if not a single person is found defecating in the open.
  • So far, 2,741 cities have been certified as ODF.
  • According to ODF+ protocol a city, ward or work circle could be declared ODF+ if, not a single person is found defecating and/or urinating in the open.
  • This requires all community and public toilets to be functional and well-maintained.
  • The ODF++ protocol adds the condition that faecal sludge/septage and sewage is safely managed and treated without dumping them in drains, water bodies or open areas.


About Swachh Bharat Mission

  • The mission aims to achieve an Open-Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2 October 2019.


  • Eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets.
  • Establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.


  • It has two sub-Missions viz. Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) and Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
  • Rural mission is under the purview of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation
  • Urban mission comes under Ministry of Urban Development.

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