- With 2.71lakh new immigrants in 2016, India occupied fourth place and accounted for 3.8% of the total inflow into OECD countries.
- This is a marginal increase from 2.68 lakh 2015 according to International Migration Outlook (2018) published by OECD.
- OECD countries received slightly more than 5 million new permanent legal migrants in 2017.
- This is the first time there is a decline in migration to the area since 2011 (down by around 5%, compared to 2016).
- This is due to the significant reduction in the number of recognised refugees in 2017 while other migration categories remained stable or increased.
- The top three origin countries were Afghanistan, Syria and Iraq.
- Accounting for almost 40% of permanent migrants, family migration (family reunification and formation as well as accompanying family members) remained the most important migration channel to the OECD area.
- The total inflow of new immigrants to OECD countries increased to 70.6 lakh during 2016 from 70.4 lakh in 2015.
- China retained its leadership position, accounting for 7.6% of the total inflow into OECD countries.
- With 2.71lakh new immigrants, India occupied fourth place and accounted for 3.8% of the total inflow.
- This is a small increase from 2.68 lakh in 2015 to 2.71 lakh.
- While the rise in inflow from India is a mere 1%, the other top four countries have shown a year-on-year decline.
- Inflows from China and Romania dipped slightly by less than 1% each.
- Poland and Syria showed a dip of 15% and 20% in refugee inflows.
First ever data on temporary labour migration
- For the first time, the International Migration Outlook, presented consolidated data on all categories of temporary labour migration.
- This category comprises international recruitments of seasonal workers and other temporary foreign workers;
- In total, OECD countries were home to more than 42 lakh temporary foreign workers during 2016, an 11% increase compared to the previous year.
- The main receiving countries for temporary foreign workers were
- Poland (which had 6.72 lakh workers, mainly from Ukraine)
- USA (with India as the main origin country with 6.6 lakh workers).
- Labour market integration of immigrants
- Between 2016 and 2017, the unemployment rate of migrants in the OECD decreased by more than 1 percentage point to 9.5%, and the employment rate increased from 65.5% to 67.1%.
- Across OECD countries, there is creation of integration programmes for newly‑arrived migrants and refugees, focusing largely on language and skills acquisition.
- Illegal employment of foreign workers
- Illegal employment of foreign workers is most likely to affect men of a relatively young age.
- The sectors most concerned by such illegal employment are agriculture, construction, manufacturing and domestic services.
Indians get most naturalised citizenship in OECD nations
- In 2016, almost 21 lakh people acquired the nationality of an OECD country, a rise of 3% from 2015.
- India leads the pack, being the top origin country for naturalised foreigners (1.3 lakh).
- This is followed by Mexico (1.1 lakh) and Philippines (85,000).
- India’s diaspora, which largely comprise of those on work visas, is not shy of acquiring foreign citizenship.
- The US, Canada, Australia, UK and New Zealand were among the favourite destinations for Indian immigrants.
- The number of Chinese acquiring foreign citizenship fell by nearly 15% to 66,500.
- The data for number of permanent residents from India in OECD countries are shown in the figure below.
About Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
- The OECD provides a forum in which governments can work together to share experiences and seek solutions to common problems.
- The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) comprises of 35 member countries, including European countries, the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Japan.
- OECD also includes emerging countries like Mexico, Chile and Turkey.
- Latvia became a member in 2016.
- The mission of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world.
- OECD measures productivity and global flows of trade and investment.
- It analyses and compares data to predict future trends.
- It sets international standards on a wide range of things, from agriculture and tax to the safety of chemicals.