International Relations Multilateral Prelims cum Mains

Indians fourth in migration to OECD nations

The News

  • With 2.71lakh new im­mi­grants in 2016, In­dia oc­cu­pied fourth place and accounted for 3.8% of the to­tal in­flow into OECD countries.
  • This is a marginal increase from 2.68 lakh 2015 according to In­ter­na­tional Mi­gra­tion Out­look (2018) published by OECD.


Key Highlights

  • OECD countries received slightly more than 5 million new permanent legal migrants in 2017.
  • This is the first time there is a decline in migration to the area since 2011 (down by around 5%, compared to 2016).
  • This is due to the significant reduction in the number of recognised refugees in 2017 while other migration categories remained stable or increased.
  • The top three origin countries were Afghanistan, Syria and Iraq.
  • Accounting for almost 40% of permanent migrants, family migration (family reunification and formation as well as accompanying family members) remained the most important migration channel to the OECD area.
  • The to­tal in­flow of new im­mi­grants to OECD coun­tries increased to 70.6 lakh dur­ing 2016 from 70.4 lakh in 2015.
  • China re­tained its lead­er­ship po­si­tion, ac­count­ing for 7.6% of the total in­flow into OECD countries.
  • With 2.71lakh new im­mi­grants, In­dia oc­cu­pied fourth place and ac­counted for 3.8% of the to­tal in­flow.
  • This is a small in­crease from 2.68 lakh in 2015 to 2.71 lakh.
  • While the rise in in­flow from In­dia is a mere 1%, the other top four coun­tries have shown a year-on-year de­cline.
  • In­flows from China and Ro­ma­nia dipped slightly by less than 1% each.
  • Poland and Syria showed a dip of 15% and 20% in refugee in­flows.



First ever data on temporary labour migration

  • For the first time, the In­ter­na­tional Mi­gra­tion Out­look, pre­sented con­sol­i­dated data on all cat­e­gories of tem­po­rary labour mi­gra­tion.
  • This category comprises international recruitments of seasonal workers and other temporary foreign workers;
  • In to­tal, OECD coun­tries were home to more than 42 lakh tem­po­rary for­eign work­ers dur­ing 2016, an 11% in­crease com­pared to the previ­ous year.
  • The main re­ceiv­ing coun­tries for tem­po­rary for­eign work­ers were
  1. Poland (which had 6.72 lakh work­ers, mainly from Ukraine)
  2. USA (with In­dia as the main ori­gin coun­try with 6.6 lakh work­ers).


Main findings

  • Labour market integration of immigrants
  • Between 2016 and 2017, the unemployment rate of migrants in the OECD decreased by more than 1 percentage point to 9.5%, and the employment rate increased from 65.5% to 67.1%.
  • Across OECD countries, there is creation of integration programmes for newly‑arrived migrants and refugees, focusing largely on language and skills acquisition.
  • Illegal employment of foreign workers
  • Illegal employment of foreign workers is most likely to affect men of a relatively young age.
  • The sectors most concerned by such illegal employment are agriculture, construction, manufacturing and domestic services.


Indians get most naturalised citizenship in OECD nations

  • In 2016, al­most 21 lakh peo­ple ac­quired the na­tion­al­ity of an OECD coun­try, a rise of 3% from 2015.
  • In­dia leads the pack, be­ing the top ori­gin coun­try for nat­u­ralised for­eign­ers (1.3 lakh).
  • This is fol­lowed by Mex­ico (1.1 lakh) and Philip­pines (85,000).
  • In­dia’s di­as­pora, which largely com­prise of those on work visas, is not shy of ac­quir­ing for­eign cit­i­zen­ship.
  • The US, Canada, Aus­tralia, UK and New Zealand were among the favourite des­ti­na­tions for In­dian im­mi­grants.
  • The num­ber of Chi­nese ac­quir­ing for­eign cit­i­zen­ship fell by nearly 15% to 66,500.
  • The data for number of permanent residents from India in OECD countries are shown in the figure below.



About Or­gan­i­sa­tion for Eco­nomic Co­op­er­a­tion and De­vel­op­ment (OECD)

  • The OECD provides a forum in which governments can work together to share experiences and seek solutions to common problems.
  • The Or­gan­i­sa­tion for Eco­nomic Co­op­er­a­tion and De­vel­op­ment (OECD) comprises of 35 mem­ber coun­tries, in­clud­ing Euro­pean coun­tries, the US, Canada, Aus­tralia, New Zealand and Ja­pan.
  • OECD also includes emerging countries like Mexico, Chile and Turkey.
  • Latvia became a member in 2016.
  • The mission of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world.


Some activities

  • OECD measures productivity and global flows of trade and investment.
  • It analyses and compares data to predict future trends.
  • It sets international standards on a wide range of things, from agriculture and tax to the safety of chemicals.

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