Prelims cum Mains Science & Tech

Diabetes, high blood pressure cases double

The News

  • Diabetes and hypertension cases diagnosed under the government’s national screening program have more than doubled in a single year.

 

Background

  • In February 2017, the health ministry rolled out a massive free door-to-door screening program for early detection of cancer, heart disorders and diabetes.
  • This was done in a bid to focus on timely screening and preventive measures by creating awareness to tackle the rising incidence of NCDs.
  • The number of people screened under the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) increased by 131% from 2016.
  • In 2017, as many as 3 crore people were screened under the program which focuses on preventive healthcare.
  • The government plans to cover 200 districts by the end of 2018.
  • This may include screening of respiratory diseases.

 

 

About National Health Profile

  • National Health Profile (NHP), published annually since 2005, brings together all health related information in a single platform.
  • It covers broadly six areas including Demographic, Socio-Economic, Health Status and Health Finance Indicators, Human Resources in Health Sector and Health Infrastructure.
  • National Health Profile is published by Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI).
  • Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI) is statutory body established by the Act of Parliament on the recommendation of Mudaliar committee under Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW).

 

India’s First Ever Nationwide Healthcare Establishment Census

  • The Union government also launched the National Health Resource Repository (NHRR).
  • The repository is country’s first ever national healthcare facility registry of authentic, standardized and updated geo-spatial data of all public and private healthcare establishments.
  • The NHRR seeks to strengthen evidence-based decision making and develop a platform for citizen and provider-centric services by creating a robust, standardized and secured IT-enabled repository of India’s healthcare resources.
  • NHRR will cover information of both, Private and Public healthcare establishments including Railways, ESIC, Defense and Petroleum healthcare establishments.
  • Over 20 lakh healthcare establishments like hospitals, doctors, clinics, diagnostic labs, pharmacies and nursing homes would be enumerated under this census.

 

Key Findings

  1. Non-Communicable Diseases
  • India is undergoing an epidemiological transition that the non-communicable diseases dominate over communicable in the total disease burden of the country.
  • In a recent report of India Council of Medical Research (ICMR), titled India: Health of the Nation’s States: The India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative(2017), disease burden from non-communicable diseases increased from 30 per cent to 55 per cent.
  • Of the total 3 crore people screened, the incidence of diabetes was found to be 8.4%, while that of hypertension was 10%.
  • National Health Profile (NHP), 2018, found incidence of diabetes increased by 128% to more than 30 lakh cases during 2017, as compared 13.2 lakh diagnosed in 2016.
  • Similarly, the number of persons diagnosed with hypertension increased from 16.9 lakh in 2016 to 36.5 lakh in 2017, a jump of nearly 116%.
  • The NHP also recorded 0.1% incidence of common cancers (oral, breast and cervix), 0.37% of cardiovascular diseases and 0.13% of stroke.
  • Besides NCDs such as cancer and diabetes are responsible for 55% of premature deaths in the age group of 30-69 years.
  • Cancer, heart disorders, diabetes account for 35% of total deaths in India.

 

 

  1. Communicable diseases
  • Among communicable diseases, rabies had 100% fatality (total 97 cases) and Japanese encephalitis recorded 12% deaths.
  • West Bengal recorded the maximum number of deaths due to malaria (29) and chicken pox (53), whereas Bihar had 70% of the cases of kala-azar.
  • Deaths from diarrhoea declined marginally from 1,555 in 2016 to 1,331 in 2017.

 

  1. Low public spending on health
  • India currently spends a little over 1% of GDP on health.
  • Total public expenditure on health in 2015-16 was Rs 140,054 crore.
  • India’s per capita public expenditure on health increased from Rs 621 in 2009-10 to Rs 1,112 (around $16 at current exchange rate) in 2015-16.
  • This is abysmal compared to other countries. Switzerland spends $6944 on health per capita, whereas the US spends $4802 and UK spends$3500.

 

 

  1. Low insurance penetration
  • According to NHP (2018), around 43 crore individuals or 34% of the population were covered under any health insurance in 2016-17.

 

  1. High out of pocket expenditure
  • According to WHO’s health financing profile for 2017 shows 67.78% of total expenditure on health in India was paid out of pocket. The world average is 18.2%.

 

Major National health programmes

  • To achieve malaria-free country by 2027 and elimination by 2030, National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2017-22 for Malaria Elimination has been developed by National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme.
  • Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) under National Health Mission has helped achieve millennium development goals in 2015 by halting and reversing the incidence of TB.
  • In 2017, National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2017-25 for TB Elimination framework has been adopted, which provides goals and strategies for eliminating TB in India by 2030.
  • National Programme for Prevention and Control of NCD integrates the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) interventions in the NRHM framework in a bid to optimize scarce resources and make provisions to ensure long term sustainability of these interventions.
  • India’s National Health Policy, 2017 envisions the goal of attaining highest possible level of health and well-being for all at for all ages through a preventive and promotive health care orientation in all developmental policies, and universal access to good quality health care services without financial hardship to the citizens.
  • Ayushman Bharat Mission, world’s largest health scheme announced in the Union Budget 2018-19, is the latest initiative for expanding the health insurance net and targets 10 crore poor and deprived rural families.

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