Geography Prelims cum Mains

Map work : African Continent

Continents Feature –

  • Africa, the secondlargest continent, is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • It is divided in half almost equally by the Equator.
  •  Only continent through which equator & both tropic passes.
  • Africa has eight major physical regions:
    • the Sahara,
    • the Sahel,
    • the Ethiopian Highlands,
    • the savanna,
    • the Swahili Coast,
    • the rain forest,
    • the African Great Lakes, and
    • Southern Africa.
  • Some of these regions cover large bands of the continent, such as the Sahara and Sahel, while others are isolated areas, such as the Ethiopian Highlands and the Great Lakes. Each of these regions has unique animal and plant communities.
  •  Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) is the largest producer of Copper & Diamond
  • Some notable points-
Highest peak Mt. Kilimanjaro (5895 m), Tanzania
Lowest point Lake Assal (-156m below sea level), Djibouti
Highest recorded temperature Al-Azizia, Libya  (58 C)
Lowest recorded temperature Ifrane, Morocco (-24 C )
Longest range Atlas range
Largest island Madagascar
Largest Lake
    1. Victoria lake
    2. Tanganyika lake
Longest river
    1. Nile river
    2. Congo river
Coastline 30539 km
Southern most point Agulhas, Somali Peninsula
Northern most point Ras ben Sakka, Tunisia
Eastern most point  
Western most point  
Largest Country
    • Algeria by area
    • Nigeria by population
Smallest country Seychelles by both area & population




Countries of African Continents-


Observe these locations in above map


Name Location  African country along sea
Mediterranean sea

  • Separate Africa From Europe
  • Distinct climate in nearby region
North Africa Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt  (5 country)
Red sea

  • Separate Africa from Asia
North east of Africa Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti (4 country)
Indian Ocean East of Africa Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa (5 country)
Atlantic ocean West of Africa Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, Angola, Namibia, South Africa.  (22 country)
Mozambique Channel East of Mozambique Mozambique (west), Madagascar (east) (2 country)

Land Locked Countries

16 Countries

Country Surrounding countries Count
Botswana Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa 4
Burkina Faso Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast 6
Burundi Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo 3
Central African Republic Chad, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, South Sudan 6
Chad Libya, Niger, Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Cameroon 6
Ethiopia Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan 6
Lesotho[d] South Africa 1
Malawi Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique 3
Mali Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania 7
Niger Libya, Chad, Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Algeria 7
South Sudan Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic 6
Swaziland Mozambique, South Africa 2
Uganda Kenya, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania 5
Zambia Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Angola 8
Zimbabwe South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique 4
Rwanda Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4

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