Madhya Pradesh’s Basmati claim

Details :

The News:

  • Madhya Pradesh has filed a writ petition in the Madras High Court challenging an order passed by Assistant Registrar of Geographical Indications (GI) excluding the State from being granted the GI tag for basmati rice.


  • The GI Registry under the Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks has rejected MP’s claim for inclusion as a basmati-growing state.

Why GI status was denied to MP

  • APEDA’s GI application for basmati rested on its supposed uniqueness as a rice grown in “a specific region of the Indo-Gangetic plain, situated below the foothills of the Himalayas”.
  • MP, according to it, did not fall within this specified geography, being situated far away from the Himalayan foothills.
  • ICAR is clear that the grain quality of basmati grown in MP cannot match that of the crop farmed in the Indo-Gangetic plains.
  • Premium value of this rice as a result of GI tag has made it a Rs 35,000-crore industry. This may be dilute with more and more states staking claim for the GI tag.


What is special about Basmati

  • Basmati rice’s most distinctive trait is its aroma is derived from a compound called 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline.
  • The accumulation of this highly volatile compound in the grain is largely a function of environmental conditions.
  • The aroma retention is best when the plant’s flowering and grain-filling stages coincide with a cool climate, with temperatures below 30 degree Celsius during daytime and just over 20 degrees at night.
  • These conditions are available from end-September through October only in the traditional basmati belt.
  • Higher temperatures during the roughly one-month period from flowering to maturity can, moreover, impact the grain’s texture and milling quality.


Arguments in favour of MP

  • Loss to farmers: Around 80,000 farmers grow about 3 lakh tonnes (lt) basmati every on nearly 75,000 hectares in 13 districts viz Morena, Bhind, Sheopur, Gwalior, Datia, Shivpuri, Guna, Vidisha, Raisen, Sehore, Hoshangabad, Narsinghpur and Jabalpur.
  • Loss to exporters: Many exporters have established modern rice mills near Bhopal, sourcing the raw material at a relatively cheaper rate.
  • Low cost: While the price of Pusa Basmati-1 paddy in Punjab and Haryana mandis hovered between Rs 3,000 per quintal to Rs 3,350, variety MP ranged from Rs 2,600 to Rs 3,000.


Basmati production in India

  • India’s total basmati rice output is roughly 60 lt grown over an area of over 16 lakh hectares (lh)
  • 40 lakh tonnes of basmati rice is exported and valued at Rs 25,000 crore
  • Composition
  • 7 lh in Haryana
  • 6 lh in Punjab
  • 6 lh in UP
  • 6 lh in J&K
  • 15 lh in Uttaranchal
  • 07 lh in HP


  • The Agriculture and Processed Food Product Export Development Authority is a statutory authority under the Commerce Ministry.
  • APEDA, through APEDA (Amendment) Act, 2009, was given mandate for Registration and Protection of the Intellectual Property Rights including GI in respect of special products in India or outside India.
  • Second Schedule has been added to the APEDA Act containing the names of such products for which APEDA has been mandated to take these measures.
  • Basmati rice is now a registered GI product with effect from February, 2016.
  • APEDA as registered proprietor of the GI is responsible to put in place a system for administration of GI and authentication of the product reaching the consumers in India and abroad.

Advantages of GI tag

  • One of the effective ways to leverage the unique identity of a product is to obtain Geographical Indication (GI) if the product is suitable for it.
  • Geographical indication is an Intellectual Property Right (IPR) which identifies a product as originating in a certain region where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the product is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.
  • Unlike other IPRs, GIs are publicly owned by the legal organizations created by the producers of the concerned product.
  • Producers of similar products in other geographical regions are excluded from using the GI tag.
  • The protection accorded through GIs seeks to prevent illegitimate entities from free riding on the reputation of the protected product.

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